Reprinted from：Hong Cheng-ke Bitter Bamboo Creek
The world’s manufacturing industry has gone through four stages of development: savage manufacturing, standardized manufacturing, lean manufacturing, and intelligent manufacturing. Each stage does not exist in isolation, but is based on a management approach.
Fig.1 Four trends in production and manufacturing
From scratch is the objective law of the development of nature, and world manufacturing begins with barbarism.
The management mode of barbarous manufacturing is experience management. Experience management is like master’s way of bringing his disciples. The disciples’ absorption of knowledge depends more or less on their own imitation ability. In addition, master still likes to leave a hand when she teaches his disciples, so that the inheritance of experience is very incomplete.
Empirical management is based on people and is an unscientific management mode. If it is allowed to develop, it is difficult for enterprises to do great things. Therefore, in order to improve the management level of enterprises, it is necessary to develop barbarous manufacturing to standardized manufacturing and lean manufacturing.
（1）Four tasks that must be done in standardized Manufacturing
The management mode of standardized manufacturing is standardized management (pattern management), also known as cloning mechanism, that is, to establish a corresponding model.
In the standardized management mode, there are four tasks to be done in the standardized management of manufacturing industry:
Professionalization of staff
The overall situation of Chinese enterprise staff is that the quality is on the low side, like to go their own way. Such employees are not doing, enterprises want to develop, must build professional employees.
Employees who do the same work, do the last use of time, make the quality of the product should be the same.
Process reengineering process
In the enterprise, the reengineering process needs to streamline the relationship between departments and departments, because too long the process can lead to the hindrance of information transmission. For example, it takes 4 days to make a product under the normal process, and the customer requires it to be completed within 1 day, so the enterprise reengineering process is needed to meet the needs of the customer, such as the compression of the four departments into an organization.
Organizational reorganization is not only the thing that must be done in standardized management, but also the only way to improve the management level of manufacturing industry in China.
（2）Give full play to the power of the model
In order to expand the scale, a company needs to acquire other enterprises, and it is necessary to standardize and make it in this process. Before the acquisition, the enterprise should set up its own characteristics and model, and be unified at the same time of the acquisition. McDonald’s and KFC’s headquarters are in the United States, but the world’s chain stores the same grade and service, depending on the power of the model.
Trends in world manufacturing:
The first stage: savage manufacturing;
The second stage: standardized manufacturing;
The third stage: lean manufacturing;
The fourth stage: intelligent manufacturing.
The standardized manufacturing enterprises can only guarantee the operation, and the goal of manufacturing is to make money, so lean manufacturing should be carried out. After the criteria are found, the most important thing in the workflow is to lean.
(1)Premise of Lean Manufacturing
The premise of lean manufacturing is standardized management.
There is a sequence of upgrades
The upgrade process of the enterprise has the sequence, must one step at a time. If there is no standard, there is no specification in operation, the enterprise carries on the fine management on the basis of barbarism manufacture, and makes the wrong thing fine in the chaos without rules and regulations, it will do more and more wrong.
The enterprise must correct the wrong ideas before realizing the lean manufacturing.
In the equipment management of Chinese enterprises, there is a concept of “I operate, you repair”, that is, the staff who operate the equipment will not repair and do not know the cause of the failure. This is the current situation of many enterprises, if on this basis for fine management, it will make personnel more redundant. The correct method should be to establish standards, let employees learn to repair equipment, do “I operate, I repair, I maintain”, such fine management will be better and better.
There are a lot of books on fine management in the market, but not all for the operation of the enterprise. Because most of the book’s subject matter is the fine of duty, not the fine of operation, can only be used for reference, can not copy. The manager needs to be carefully identified and customized for the enterprise.
(2)The Core idea of Lean Manufacturing
The management mode of lean manufacturing is fine management, and fine management is the third stage of enterprise management.
The core idea of lean manufacturing is continuous improvement, which is reflected in the difference between the management enterprise and the improved enterprise. In management-type enterprises, they mainly rely on the system to restrain the staff; in the improvement of the enterprise, the errors are mainly corrected by the scientific method.
The difference between management and improvement enterprises:
Management enterprises: relying on the system to restrain employees;
Improvement enterprises: correct mistakes by scientific methods.
Intelligent manufacturing includes intelligent manufacturing technology and intelligent manufacturing system. Intelligent manufacturing system can not only enrich the knowledge base in practice, but also has the function of self-learning, as well as the ability to collect and understand environmental information and its own information, and to analyze and judge and plan its own behavior.
（1）Prerequisite for intelligent manufacturing
The premise of intelligent manufacturing is digital management. No matter “Industrial 4.0” put forward by Germany, “Industrial Internet” in the United States or “made in China 2025”, they are called the fourth industrial revolution dominated by “the deep integration of technological information and manufacturing technology”, which will realize the transformation from manufacturing to intelligence.
There is a sequence of upgrades
The enterprise’s upgrade process has the sequence, must step by step. When the enterprise has established standards, in the standard operation and has achieved fine management, all procedures, action management to achieve digitalization.
（2）The Core idea of Intelligent Manufacturing
The management mode of intelligent manufacturing is digital management. How to turn physical entity into digital virtual body in order to guide our product design, production line and factory design and intelligent product development. Digital management is the ultimate stage of enterprise management.
The core idea of intelligent manufacturing is artificial intelligent system, which has five typical features:state perception, real-time analysis, independent decision making, accurate execution, and finally learning and improvement. Intelligent systems begin with perception, precision in computing, good at decision-making, hard execution, and learning.
We create intelligent tools through digitization. These tools, in turn, help people to model physical entities, which are digital virtual bodies. When we embed digital virtual bodies into physical entities, physical entities have intelligence, thus guiding our product design and product production.
（3）The realm of Intelligent Manufacturing pursuit
Intelligent manufacturing is to develop a new intelligent technology system, which has similar human cognitive ability, perception, analysis, self-decision-making, good action, and is good at using knowledge in the process of analysis and decision-making, while learning, accumulating and even creating knowledge. It is a kind of ability to imitate, expand and surpass human intelligence to achieve zero production, zero inventory, zero waste, zero bad, zero failure, zero stagnation and zero disaster. This requires digital management of all the elements of the enterprise, such as machine, material, method, ring, test, die and so on.