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How important is the manufacturing sector to the rise of China?

2019-08-05

Reprinted from:Strategic Frontier Technology

No “agriculture” instability, no “work” is not strong, no “business” is not rich. Because agriculture is restricted by relatively limited output, among the three industries, industry is an industry with strong hematopoietic function, which is of great significance to the sustained prosperity of economy and social stability.

As early as 2010, China has become the world’s largest industrial country, fulfilling the long-cherished wish of the first generation of leading collectives, represented by Comrade Mao Zedong, to develop China from an agricultural country to an industrial country. Just as the Chinese people completed the historical achievements of initial industrialization, there were some discordant notes in society-some people linked industry to sweatshops, and some even regarded industry as an industry that must be eliminated by history, and proposed to learn from the “advanced experience” of the West and engage in “deindustrialization.”

So, industry is really the culprit of environmental pollution, is it an industry that is bound to be eliminated by history?

The rise of the great powers is due to strong industries

First, Britain’s empire did not set down because of the achievements of the Industrial Revolution.

Britain has been marginalized politically, economically and culturally for a long time. British aristocrats show their nobility by speaking a few words of French, and English is regarded as the language of inferior people in continental Europe. The arrival of the industrial revolution, on the other hand, gave an opportunity for a salted fish to turn around in Britain, which was originally marginalized.

Britain has been marginalized politically, economically and culturally for a long time. British aristocrats show their nobility by speaking a few words of French, and English is regarded as the language of inferior people in continental Europe. The arrival of the industrial revolution, on the other hand, gave an opportunity for a salted fish to turn around in Britain, which was originally marginalized.

And with the rise of the textile industry, the higher demand for the power system, the steam engine originally used for mine pumping was improved and used in the textile industry – the first steam spinning plant was established in Britain in 1784. After that, the steam engine was applied in metallurgical industry, railway transportation, steam ship and so on. By 1825, the UK had 15,000 steam engines (375,000 horsepower), from mines to factories, from land to sea, with machines roaring everywhere, machines turning everywhere, machines galloping everywhere…

So far, Britain has not only basically got rid of the shackles of traditional handicraft industry and realized mechanization in textile industry, but also realized the substitution of machine to human in many fields such as transportation, metallurgy and so on. By 1850, British industrial output accounted for 39% of the world’s industrial output and trade accounted for 21% of the world’s total.

When the British blew up the doors of the Qing Dynasty with the Opium War, we should see not only the strong ship and cannon of the British, but also the industrial foundation of providing support for the strong ship and cannon, which was the material guarantee that the red shirts fought all over the world in the 19th century and the cornerstone of Britain’s unbeatable empire.Second, Germany has the ability to challenge the old international order because of its strong industrial strength.

Germany industrialised 50 years later than Britain. In 1830, Germany, with an industrial population of less than 3%, was still an agricultural country, and Germany was still in a state of fragmentation, making the Germans the third-class citizens of Europe so bullied that Heine, a famous German romantic poet in the 19th century, said, “Land belongs to the French and Russians, and the sea belongs to the British, only in the dream of the air kingdom.” The power of the Germans is indisputable.

Until 1834, the German customs union was set up under the appeal of a scholar, such as listeria, and the German state has embarked on the road of industrialization. By 1846, the German states of the Customs Union had 313 yarn factories and 750,000 mechanical spindles, with 1,139 steam engines (2.17 million horsepower). By 1848, the total length of the railway line of the German state amounted to 2,500km.

Later, the German state seized the opportunity of the second industrial revolution, the steel industry flourished, the emergence of Ruhr industrial zone, Sal industrial zone and other industrial towns. By 1870, the power of German steam engine was 2.48 million horsepower, the output of coal was 34 million tons, the output of pig iron was 1.39 million tons, the output of steel was 170000 tons, and the length of railway line was 18876 kilometers.

So far, the German industry has overtaken France, accounting for 13.2% of the world’s industrial output value, which also laid the material foundation for Prussia’s victory in the 1871 war.

During the second Reich of Germany, relying on the exploitation of cheap domestic labor and war reparations from France and China, Germany’s industrial strength developed by leaps and bounds-by the eve of World War I, Germany’s urbanization rate had reached 60 percent, industrial output accounted for 15.7 percent of the world’s total industrial output, steel production was 2.26 times that of the United Kingdom, electricity generation was 3.2 times that of the United Kingdom, and railway mileage was 60521 kilometers and 90 percent of that of the United Kingdom. Coal production is 95% of that in Britain, making it the largest industrial country in Europe.

Strong industrial base has become emboldened to challenge the British hegemony is located in Germany.

Third, the United States and the Soviet Union in the strong industry to lay the new international order after the war

The United States of America, 1800-1850, was still a backward agricultural country, with the northern industry dominated by food processing and textiles, while producing raw materials such as wood and minerals, while the south was a plantation economy, where farms stocked slaves and planted cotton, tea and grain. After the Civil War, the United States, like Germany, seized the opportunity of the Second Industrial Revolution, and the United States had better development potential than Germany – vast land, abundant resources, huge population, unique geographical environment, which led to an explosion of American industry – from 1868 to 1880,

U.S. steel production grew at an average annual rate of about 40, and by the eve of World War I, the U.S. had the world’s largest industrial output, accounting for 32 of the world’s total industrial output, and the world’s largest steel, coal, oil and grain production. By the eve of World War II, the United States accounted for 38.7 of the world’s industrial output.

And that’s where the U.S. built a fleet carrier every two months during World War II, producing 40,000 aircraft and 20,000 tanks a year. On the eve of World War I, Russia’s industrial output accounted for 8.2 of the world’s total industrial output, although it seems that industrial strength is not bad, but a large part of industrial output from foreign investment light industry, the country’s heavy industry accounted for only one-half of all industry, it is therefore, Russia is known as the “mud-footed giant.”

In World War I, the Russian army was heavily less equipped than the Germans, and there were even three soldiers sharing a rifle.
After the establishment of the Soviet Union, especially under Stalin’s steel industry guiding ideology and planned economic system, ushered in the era of high-speed industrialization, to the eve of World War II, the Soviet Union’s industrial output accounted for 17.6 of the world’s total industrial output, and the industrial structure to military and heavy industry as the main body. It was on the strength of heavy industry that the Soviet Union produced 108,000 tanks and self-propelled artillery during World War II, 144,000 aircraft, and eventually won the Patriotic War, redrawing the post-war international order with the Allies in Elbe, along with the United States.

Decline of the West, are for the loss of the power industry

First, without a strong industry, there can be no international status.

Retrospective history, in World War Two, although China has paid a heavy price, but the name of the victors, but no real victors — After the end of the First World War, Shandong interests by seizing of Japan ; foreign interests of Mongolia and north – east in the Second World War by the US sanctions to the Soviet Union.The root causes of these phenomena is industrial strength rather than one person, comprehensive national strength, with Data Compare is clear on the eve of the Second World War :

The United States accounted for 38.7% of world industrial production;

The Soviet Union accounted for 17.6% of the world’s industrial production;

Germany accounts for 13.2% of world industrial production;

Britain accounts for 9.2% of the world’s industrial production;

France accounts for 4.5% of world industrial production;

China accounts for 0.3% of the world’s industrial production.

From the above data, it can be seen that on the eve of World War II, China’s industrial strength is extremely weak, limited factories most of the textile industry, and heavy industry is almost zero, from small to iron nails, large to aircraft, tanks, warships basically dependent on imports. Without its own industrial system and defense industry, it is neither able to guarantee national security nor support the sustainable development of the national economy, and under the law of international relations, the weak meat is naturally bullied, even if China’s national sovereignty is regarded by the great powers as the object of arbitrary punishment.

It is precisely because since 1840, the century-old national humiliation of being bullied because of the inferior industrial power has prompted the first generation of leaders, led by Mao Zedong, to have a near-religious zeal for the development of heavy industry, and even if it is to cut back on food and clothing, hunger must be built to establish a sound industrial system and a strong national defense industry, China is a devastated, poor and weak agricultural country, and in 1976 it became the world’s sixth industrial nation with a full industrial system and cutting-edge weapons and equipment such as “two bombs and one star” and nuclear submarines. China has emerged from the impression that it has accumulated poverty and the People’s Republic of China has become one of the five permanent members of the United Nations, gaining the status of equal dialogue with the United States, the Soviet Union, Britain and France, the old international powers.

Thirty years east of the river, thirty years west of the river. With the “de-industrialization” of the West in recent decades and the efforts of East Asian countries to develop industry, the emergence of the “North America-Western Europe-East Asia” three major industrial centers, which led to the era of white supremacy in the past is over, and in the global political arena, East Asian countries began to play an increasingly important role. The international political pattern has also occurred from the “polar confrontation” during the Cold War, to the post-cold war era, “one super-strong”, to the “North America -Western Europe – East Asia” three-legged era – the change of the international status of various countries, in the final analysis, is determined by industrial strength.

Second, without strong industry, there can be no sustained economic prosperity.

There is no ” Agriculture ” instability, there is no ” worker ” is not strong, there is no ” commercial ” not rich. Since agriculture is subject to the limited output in the three industries, industry is the industry that is truly powerful hematopoiesis, to the sustained economic prosperity and social stability is of extraordinary significance.

Since the 2008 financial crisis, the economy of Europe and the United States has plummeted, China’s economy has emerged, has become the engine of world economic growth, the fundamental of which lies in China’s rapid growth of industrial strength. Germany was able to gain European leadership, especially after the European debt crisis, with the power to discipline the sovereignty of other countries, and to accomplish Hitler’s undoable cause, but also because of Germany’s strong industrial power.

If there is no strong industrial, although you can rely on the sale of natural resources, but the scenery for a while, but it has no scenery life.

Rely on sold national resources, Argentina in in 20th century early is comparison rich countries, Century in 70 generation and benefit Japan Economic the rise of, to raw materials of mass demand gave birth to a prime goods bull market — iron ore, and oil, and soybean price soaring, support up Argentina economic prosperity, Argentina even once into the developed countries threshold, but as Japan to raw materials demand saturated and Japan ” Lost 20 years “, Argentina Economic with the suffered hit, and people best, of the and domestic politician short-sighted, Argentina be global only the second, from developed countries ” in transition ” for developing countries joke ( another is South Africa ).

Brazil compared Argentina’s it takes two, on the one hand because the resource situation of exports from Japan’s economic development and the ups and downs ; on the other hand open market – oriented reforms, the country’s industry was hit hard by foreign products, the manufacturing industry in Brazil’s share of the national economy by 29 in the 80, now shrunk to about 10 per cent, Brazil lost the opportunity to pick up the industrialization of the last bus forever.

Third, the weakness of the West lies in “deindustrialization”.

Since the 1970s, developed countries in Europe and the United States have gradually shifted their phase-out capacity to third-world countries, on the one hand, creating the economic miracle of the four little dragons in Asia, while reducing the environmental pollution caused by industry, the unemployment of the people to the service industry, and vigorously develop the “money to make money” financial industry, Created a virtual economy that was almost astronomical.

These moves in the West were once seen as wise, even highly admired by many domestic economists, some of whom have offered ideas to demand that China follow suit.

But now, “de-industrialization” is harmful.

As a once-sunset empire, the birthplace of the industrial revolution, once the global hegemony to the children and grandchildren left an unusually strong home, although after several defeats, there are still Rolls-Royce and a number of well-established enterprises with deep technological roots.

But under the lights of the City of London, it is hard to hide the reality of the decline of British industry, as the country that built the world’s first railway, unable to renew its rail network and has had to turn to China to help build high-speed rail; ZTE and other communications companies arranged, even the British parliament to buy Huawei’s products; as a former world leader, in the civil nuclear power technology lack of success, had to turn to China and France for technical support …

When Britain was hit by the financial crisis and the European debt storm, former British Prime Minister Tony Blair asked German Chancellor Angela Merkel about the secrets of economic success, and Sheysaid replied: “We are at least still doing something.”
As a former world factory, the United States has also suffered from the bitter fruits of “de-industrialization”, the national economy in the financial game of money, the weaker the playing – in the low-end industry to the third world, the increasingly scarce blood-forming capacity, relying entirely on the dollar hegemony of the global blood-sucking and some high-end industry in support.
The transfer of people from industry into the service industry, and as a service industry to absorb a large number of employed people, is also divided into high-end service industry and low-end service industry, the former mainly includes finance, accounting, law, health care, education and other service industries requiring professional knowledge, higher income, higher threshold, and fewer jobs And the low-end service industry mostly do not need much advanced professional knowledge and skills, the threshold is low, but the income is low. And the middle class of society – blue-collar workers in the process of de-industrialization gradually died out, which accelerated the american society’s two-tier division between the rich and the poor, in the social class to build a fence between the various classes, inflaming class conflicts;
Once upon a time, hard work, courage, self-confidence, self-improvement and other Chinese have the excellent qualities, Americans also have – today, Westerners feel china’s efficient infrastructure and perfect infrastructure, and 100 years ago Europeans feel that the United States spent more than a year to build the Empire State Building, It was this spirit that made the once backward United States the number one industrial power of the century.
With the “de-industrialization”, a large number of working-class unemployment, and the United States financiers, accountants, lawyers, doctors of the cost of education and the threshold is unusually high, the scarcity and professionalism of these jobs caused the son-in-law industry cycle is unusually common, class mobility tends to stagnate.
Education can no longer change the fate of the general public, but also for families, which directly led to the prevalence of anti-intellectualism, the decline in the quality of the population, the crime rate soared (the United States accounts for 5 people in the world, the number of prisoners in prisons accounted for 25 of the world’s prisoners), and in turn exacerbated the domestic racial problems, illegal immigration and other hidden contradictions……
In the hard-working can not get rich, in education can not change the fate of life, the original full of positive energy of the American spirit, will inevitably be superimposed, hedonistic culture, hip-hop culture, so that the elite class of the United States can be hereditary, always high, and the civilian class can only follow the flow, gradually sink.
It was “de-industrialization” that had done great harm to the American economy, and in order to save America’s decline, Mr Obama embarked on a much-vaunted “re-industrialisation” that in his first State of the Union address of his second term, he proposed “making America a magnetic field for new jobs and manufacturing” and encouraging the return of manufacturing. The aim is to revive America with powerful industry.

Take history as a guide and firmly develop strong industry
In 2011, China’s industrial gross domestic product was 120 percent of that of the United States, 34.6 percent of that of Germany and 23.5 percent of that of Japan. To add to the fear of western politicians, China’s industrial output was only 65% of that of the United States in 2007.

It is for this reason that the United States, even despite its unfilled pits in the Middle East, will unswervingly return to the Asia-Pacific region, trying to reach a TPP with the United States in the Asia-Pacific region, trying to isolate China; Saad system and other advanced equipment and elite troops deployed to the Asia-Pacific region, and frequently with Japan, South Korea, the Philippines and other countries held military exercises …
Compared with the three rivals of the United States – Germany, Japan, the Soviet Union, the industrial peak strength of the three countries is only 70, the United States has never faced China’s opponents – with a large population, vast land, education, complete industrial system, deep civilization and so on, to be precise, China’s industrial potential is far greater than America’s!
With China’s industrial transformation and upgrading, more and more high-tech products will be made into “white cabbage price”, China’s “developed country shredder” will be the name of the real name, the United States high-end manufacturing capacity will be increasingly poor.
The “Belt and Road” and the internationalization of the RMB refer directly to the political influence of the United States and the hegemony of the dollar – to be realistic, China’s industrial transformation and upgrading, belt and rmb internationalization is fully aimed at the U.S. weakness, once the U.S. political influence is weakened, high-end manufacturing industry is china’s impact, the dollar hegemony is affected by the internationalization of the yuan, A global retreat in U.S. military power will be inevitable. And China has no need to compete with the United States for a moment, just the development of industry, hard work, there is no war and the possibility of until the United States forces out of the Asia-Pacific.
If the Chinese people in some economists, engage in “de-industrialization”, and vigorously develop the financial services industry, it is entirely self-deprecation – South Africa’s industry is not strong, not only a foot across the nuclear threshold, but also the production of horn mk2 tanks, honey-car, stone tea, G5 and other advanced equipment, but after Mandela came to power, Following Western values, consciously or unconsciously “de-industrialization”, South Africa from developed countries to developing countries.
The lesson of the Soviet Union is even more profound, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the original complete industrial system was fragmented, in the two decades after the dissolution of the Soviet-era industrial empire, Russia has been reduced to the sale of oil, gas and the Soviet legacy of the resource-based countries, known as “nuclear-armed Saudis”, even Ukraine In Syria, such a low-intensity conflict, Russia’s intervention and intervention not only caused serious internal injury to the economy, the actual intervention, intervention ability compared with the Soviet period can be described as the sky and the ground.
Looking at the success or failure of the great powers, it can be said that it is due to industrialization and defeat in “de-industrialization”. The former car, the teacher of the future, hope that the Chinese people to take it as a lesson, firm industrialization road does not waver!

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