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Source: Control Engineering Network

2020-04-08

In the face of the shock of the new crown, the most seriously injured are traditional labor-intensive manufacturing and services, especially in some areas of offline contact trading, almost completely wiped out. However, some companies that have done well in the transformation and upgrading of unmanned factories and non-contact businesses have been the beneficiaries. Opportunities are always left to a well-prepared mind, and the future always belongs to enterprises that plan ahead. This time, the test of the epidemic is a crisis for most enterprises, but for these intelligent upgrading and transformation of the more successful enterprises, it is a new development opportunity. In the post-epidemic era, accelerating the construction of smart factories is manufacturing The choice of business. As we all know, the planning and construction of intelligent factory is a very complex system engineering. In order to avoid detours, this paper collates ten core elements to be considered in the construction and the key dimensions to be paid attention to.

 

Data collection and management

Data collection and management data is the blood of intelligent factory construction, flowing between the application systems. During the operation of intelligent factories, business data such as design, process, manufacturing, warehousing, logistics, quality, personnel and so on will be generated, which may come from application systems such as ERP、MES、APS、WMS、QIS, respectively. It is necessary to collect the data of output, quality, energy consumption, machining precision and equipment status in time during the production process, and associate with orders, processes, personnel, so as to realize the whole process traceability of the production process. In addition, in the process of intelligent factory construction, data management norms need to be established to ensure Verify data consistency and accuracy. Also, the interface specification of data acquisition and the application of SCADA( monitoring and data acquisition) system should be considered in advance. Enterprises need to determine the acquisition method according to the frequency requirements of collection, and for the data that need to be collected at high frequency, it should be collected automatically from the equipment control system. In addition, when necessary, special data management departments should be established to clarify the principles and construction methods of data management, to establish data management processes and systems, to coordinate the problems existing in implementation, and to regularly check the implementation of technical standards, processes and implementation to optimize data management.

 

The equipment networking realizes the intelligent factory and even the industry 4.0, promotes the industrial Internet construction, realizes the MES application, the most important foundation is to realize the M2M, namely the equipment and the equipment interconnection, establishes the factory network. Enterprises should establish uniform standards on how to interconnect equipment and how to adopt communication mode, communication protocol and interface mode. Based on this, the enterprise can realize the remote monitoring of the equipment, and after the machine tool networking, it can realize DNC( distributed numerical control) application. Equipment networking and data acquisition are the basis for enterprises to build industrial Internet.

 

Factory intelligent logistics promotes the construction of intelligent factory, and the intelligent logistics of production site is very important, especially for discrete manufacturing enterprises. Intelligent factory planning, to minimize invalid material handling. Many manufacturing enterprises have set up centralized picking area (Kitting Area) in assembly workshop, centralized distribution according to each customer order, and quick picking through DPS (Digital Pick System) mode, distribution to assembly line, side warehouse.

 

Discrete manufacturing enterprises can transfer materials by means of industrial robot with guide rail, truss manipulator and so on between the two mechanical processes. They can also transfer materials by means of AGV、RGV( rail shuttle) or chain. The application of three-dimensional warehouse and roller system is also a problem that enterprises need to carry out system analysis when planning intelligent factories.

 

Production quality management and equipment management to improve quality is the eternal theme of enterprises, in intelligent factory planning, production quality management and equipment management is the core business process. Carrying out quality is the idea of designing, producing, not testing. Quality control needs to be embedded in the main production process in the information system, such as inspection, test in the production order as a process or step to process; quality control process, form, data and production order interrelated, penetration; build the basic work route of quality management: quality control settings → testing → recording → evaluation → analysis → continuous improvement. Equipment is a factor of production, play equipment Efficiency (OEE— equipment comprehensive efficiency) is the basic requirement of intelligent factory production management. OEE increase marks the increase of capacity and the reduction of cost. The production management information system needs to set up the equipment management module, so that the equipment can release the highest production capacity, and through the reasonable arrangement of production, the equipment, especially the key and bottleneck equipment, can reduce the waiting time. In the equipment management module, it is necessary to establish all kinds of equipment database, set up code, and maintain the equipment in time; provide the ability data of equipment for production and production scheduling by collecting the equipment status data in real time; establish the health management file of the equipment, and establish the fault according to the accumulated equipment operation data Predictive model, predictive maintenance to minimize unplanned downtime of equipment; to carry out equipment spare parts management.

Equipment layout, production line layout, workshop logistics for simulation. In the design of plant, we should also think about how to reduce noise, how to facilitate the flexible adjustment of equipment layout, how to carry out logistics transportation of multi-storey plant, and so on.

 

The application manufacturing enterprise of intelligent equipment must pay close attention to the latest development of intelligent equipment when planning intelligent factory. Machine tool equipment is moving from numerical control to intelligent, many enterprises use industrial robots when equipment is loaded and unloaded. In future factories, metal material increasing manufacturing equipment will be combined with cutting (material reduction), molding (and other materials) and other equipment to greatly improve material utilization. Besides the six-axis industrial robot, the application of SCARA robot and parallel robot should be considered, and the cooperative robot will appear on the production line to cooperate with the workers to improve the working efficiency.

 

Intelligent production line planning intelligent production line is the core link of intelligent factory planning, enterprises need to plan intelligent production line reasonably according to the product family, production capacity and production rhythm to be produced by the production line, and adopt the method of value flow chart and so on. The characteristics of intelligent production line are :△ in the process of production and assembly, it can automatically collect data such as production, quality, energy consumption, equipment performance (OEE) through sensors, numerical control system or RFID, and display real-time production status through electronic Kanban, which can prevent and prevent mistakes ;△ realize the cooperation between working procedures through lamp installation system ;△ the production line can realize fast mode change and flexible automation ; can support a variety of similar products mixed line production and assembly, flexible adjustment process, adapt to small batch, multi-variety production mode ;△ has a certain redundancy, if equipment failure, can be adjusted to other equipment production ;△ for manual operation of the station, can give intelligent tips, and make full use of man-machine cooperation. The design of intelligent production line needs to consider how to save space, how to reduce the movement of personnel, how to carry out automatic detection, so as to improve production efficiency and production quality.

 

Manufacturing execution system MES MES is the focus of intelligent factory planning landing, connected to the ERP system, connected to the field of PLC program controller, data collector, bar code, testing instruments and other equipment. MES aim is to strengthen the execution function of the MRP plan, carry out the production plan, carry out the production schedule, and feedback the production progress in real time :△ to the front line workers: what to do, how to do, what standard to meet, when to start, when to finish, what tools to use, etc.; record the production data such as “man, machine, material, law, ring, test” and establish the data chain that can be used for product traceability; feedback progress, counter

Paperless production

 

With the improvement of information technology and the decrease of the cost of intelligent terminal, the planning of intelligent factory can popularize the information terminal to each station. The operator will be able to accept the work instruction at the terminal, accept the production data such as drawings, processes, orders and so on, and can be flexible to adapt the production plan change, drawing change and process change.

 

The production line of production monitoring and command system process industry enterprise is equipped with DCS system or PLC control system, and the status of each equipment and instrument on the production line can be viewed by configuration software, but most discrete manufacturing enterprises have not established production monitoring and command system. In fact, discrete manufacturing enterprises also need to build a centralized production monitoring and command system, which presents the key equipment status, production status, quality data, and various real-time analysis charts in the system. visual display through Kanban. Provides multiple types of content presentation to assist decision making.

 

In a word, to do a good job in the planning of intelligent factories, we need to make comprehensive use of these core elements, consider comprehensively from various perspectives, and make comprehensive trade-offs and unified planning from various aspects, such as investment budget, advanced technology, investment payback period, system complexity, flexibility of production, etc.

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